Q1.   Which authority conducts elections to Parliament?
Ans. Election Commission of India (ECI)
Article 324 of the constitution of India vests in the Commission the powers of superintendence, direction and control of the elections to both Houses of Parliament. Detailed provisions are made under the Representation of the People Act, 1951 and the rules made thereunder.
 
Q2.   Which authority conducts elections to the State Legislative Assemblies and Legislative Councils?
Ans. Election Commission of India (ECI)
Article 324 (1) also vests in the Commission the powers of superintendence, direction and control of the elections to both Houses of the State Legislature. Detailed provisions are made under the Representation of the People Act, 1951 and the rules made thereunder.
 
Q3.    Which authority conducts election to the local bodies like Panchayats/Municipal Councils?
Ans. The State Election Commissions (SECs)
The State Election Commissions constituted under the Constitution (Seventy-third and Seventy-fourth) Amendments Act, 1992 for each State / Union Territory are vested with the powers of conduct of elections to the Corporations, Municipalities, Zilla Parishads, District Panchayats, Panchayat Samitis, Gram Panchayats and other local bodies. They are independent of the Election Commission of India.
 
Q4.   Who supervises the election work in a State ?
Ans. The Chief Electoral Officer (CEO).
As per section 13A of the Representation of the People Act 1950, read with section 20 of the Representation of the People Act, 1951, the Chief Electoral Officer of a State/ Union Territory is authorized to supervise the election work in the State/Union Territory subject to the overall superintendence, direction and control of the Election Commission.
 
Q5. Who appoints the Chief Electoral Officer?
Ans. Election Commission of India (ECI)
The Election Commission of India nominates or designates an Officer of the Government of the State/Union Territory as the Chief Electoral Officer in consultation with that State Government/Union Territory Administration.
 
Q6. Who appoints the District Election Officer?
Ans. The Election Commission of India nominates or designates an Officer of the State Government as the District Election Officer in consultation with the State Government.
 
Q7. Who is responsible for the conduct of elections in any Parliamentary or Assembly constituency ?
Ans. Returning Officer (RO)
The Returning Officer of a parliamentary or assembly constituency is responsible for the conduct of elections in the parliamentary or assembly constituency concerned as per section 21 of the Representation of the People Act 1951.
 
Q8. Who appoints the Returning Officer?
Ans. Election Commission of India (ECI)
The Election Commission of India nominates or designates an officer of the Government or a local authority as the Returning Officer for each of the assembly and parliamentary constituencies in consultation with the State Government/Union Territory Administration. In addition, the Election Commission of India also appoints one or more Assistant Returning Officers for each of the assembly and parliamentary constituencies to assist the Returning Officer in the performance of his functions in connection with the conduct of elections.
 
Q9. Who is responsible for the preparation of electoral rolls for a Parliamentary or Assembly Constituency?
Ans. Electoral Registration Officer (ERO)
The Electoral Registration officer is responsible for the preparation of electoral rolls for a parliamentary / assembly constituency.
 
Q10. Who conducts the poll at a polling station?
Ans. Presiding Officer
The Presiding Officer with the assistance of polling officers conducts the poll at a polling station.
 
Q11. Who appoints the Electoral Registration officer?
Ans. Under section 13B of the Representation of the People Act, 1950, the Election Commission of India, in consultation with the State / UT Government, appoints an Officer of the Government or the Local Authorities as the Electoral Registration Officer. In addition, the Election Commission of India also appoints one or more Assistant Electoral Registration Officers to assist the Electoral Registration Officer in the performance of his functions in the matter of preparation / revision of electoral rolls.
 
Q12. Who appoints Presiding Officers and Polling Officers?
Ans. District Election Officer (DEO)
Under section 26 of the Representation of the People Act 1951, the District Election Officer appoints the Presiding Officers and the Polling Officers. In the case of Union Territories, such appointments are made by the Returning Officers.
 
Q13. Who appoints Observers?
Ans. Election Commission of India (ECI)
Under section 20B of the Representation of the People Act 1951, the Election Commission of India nominates officers of Government as Observers (General Observers and Election Expenditure Observers) for parliamentary and assembly constituencies. They perform such functions as are entrusted to them by the Commission. Earlier, the appointment of Observers was made under the plenary powers of the Commission. But with the amendments made to the Representation of the People Act, 1951 in 1996, these are now statutory appointments. They report directly to the Commission.
 
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